Saturday, December 27, 2008

BARACK OBAMA, 44TH PRESIDENT - On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama will be inaugurated as our nation's 44th President. He will be the first African-American and individual born in Hawaii to be elected President. With a beautiful and gracious wife, Michelle Obama, and two beautiful young daughters, he should bring the same youthfulness and sense of opportunity that John Kennedy brought to the White House. See you at the inauguration and look for future blog posts about his presidency!!!

Friday, December 26, 2008

GEORGE W. BUSH, 43RD PRESIDENT - George W. Bush was sworn in as our 43rd President on January 20, 2001 after a contested election against the Democratic candidate, Vice President Al Gore. Ultimately, the election was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court which stopped a recount of the votes in Florida. In his first year in office, Bush was confronted with the tragedy of the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 on the World Trade Center towers in New York and against the Pentagon in the Washington, D.C. area. In response to these terrorist attacks, President Bush declared a war on terror and ordered the invasion of Afghanistan and later of Iraq. With popular support as a war-time President and a conservative shift in the mood of the country, Bush was re-elected to a second term of office four years later. In his second term, however, Bush faced increasingly low rankings in the public opinion polls as support for the war in Iraq diminished and the economy worsened. At the end of his two terms as President, Bush had one of the lowest public opinion poll rankings of any President since such polls have been conducted as the financial and banking system in the country went into a melt-down as a result of a collapse of the housing market, and as mortgage-backed securities increasingly became illiquid. President Bush was the second President to be elected that was the son of a previous President, with his father George H.W. Bush having been the 41st President of the United States. The only other President that was the son of a previous President was John Quincy Adams. As an outgoing President, Bush made a commitment to make the transition of his successor, Barack Obama, the easiest of any President-Elect.

WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON, 42ND PRESIDENT - On January 20, 1993, Bill Clinton was inaugurated as our nation's 42nd President. Four years later, he was re-elected to a second term. He was the second President, along with Andrew Johnson, to be impeached by the U.S. House of Representatives. Like Andrew Johnson, however, the motivations for impeachment were primarily political and thus Clinton was not convicted and removed from office by the Senate. At the end of his presidency, Clinton continued to enjoy strong public support. As President, Clinton presided over the greatest peace time economic prosperity in the history of the country. After his presidency, Clinton has gone on to become one of, if not, the most influential world spokesman raising funds and working for world humanitarian causes. Meanwhile, his wife and former First Lady Hillary Clinton was elected as a U.S. Senator from New York, the only former First Lady to run for political office. In 2008, she ran for the Democratic nomination for President, but lost the nomination to Barack Obama. She and former President Clinton then compaigned for Obama in the general election. After Obama's election as President, he announced that he would appoint former First Lady Hillary Clinton to the position of Secretary of State.

GEORGE HERBERT WALKER BUSH, 41ST PRESIDENT - George H.W. Bush was sworn in as our nation's 41st President on January 20, 1989. Previously, he had served as Vice President under President Reagan. Before that he had served as a Congressman, as the U.S. representative to China, and as Director of te Central Intellgence Agency. As such, he was one of the most experienced individuals in foreign policy to ever be elected President. This experience was demonstrated when, after Iraq invaded Kuwait, President George H. W. Bush was able to organize a large coalition of countries to join the United States in forcing the military forces of Iraq out of Kuwait. Bush could have continued the Gulf War and directed U.S. forces to continue to Baghdad so as to oust Saddam Hussein, but chose not to do so since such a move would have both created a power vacuum in Iraq and would have cost U.S. support from its other Arab allies, such as Saudi Arabia. After the Gulf War, Bush's popularity was one of the highest of any President, but it increasingly fell afterwards as the economy worsened and the public did not feel that Bush was in touch with the economic problems of the country. As such, President Bush was defeated in his re-election attempt by his Democratic challenger, Bill Clinton. Ironically, Bush's son, George W. Bush was elected President after the two terms of Bill Clinton. During his son's presidency, the senior George W. Bush worked with former President Clinton to address a number of humanitarian relief efforts.

RONALD REAGAN, 41ST PRESIDENT - Ronald Reagan was sworn in as our nation's 41st President on January 20, 1981. Minutes later, Iran announced that they had released the American hostages that they had held ever since President Carter had allowed the former Shah of Iran into the United States in order to receive medical treatment for his cancer. Reagan's swearing-in was the first time that a Presidential inauguration was held on the West Terrace of the U.S. Capitol. Known as the "Great Communicator", Reagan along with John Kennedy often tops public opinion polls as the best U.S. President. This is compared to polls of historians that typically list George Washington or Abraham Lincoln, and Franklin Roosevelt as the top three presidents. Reagan assumed the office of President at a time of low public morale because of high inflation, frustration over the Iran hostage situation, and the recent Arab oil embargo which had caused gas rationing in America. Reagan was elected based upon his promise of renewed optimism in America along with a shift towards conservative values and restraining the spending of government. Ironically, while Reagan's foreign policies helped bring about the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union, his military spending on the Star Wars and other programs caused government spending and the federal deficit to skyrocket. Reagan is the only movie star to be elected President. He survived an assassination attempt shortly after his election to his first term in office that almost cost him his life, but went on to serve to two terms as President. After he publicly took responsibility for the trading of arms for hostages in his second term in office, or what is known as the Iran-Contra scandal, the publicly forgave him. As a result, the media often referred to Reagan as having a "teflon factor" where the public so liked him that he could overcome criticisms that other President would have difficulty in dealing with. Part of this ability can be attributed to the way that Reagan seemed able to talk directly to the public in moments of shared celebration, such as the bicentennial of the Statue of Liberty, or in moments of tragedy, such as the Challenger space shuttle disaster.

JAMES EARL CARTER, 40TH PRESIDENT - After the Nixon/Watergate scandal, Carter was elected as a Washington outsider who promised to always tell the American public the truth. He was sworn in as President on January 20, 1977. Two Bibles were on the lectern at the swearing in - one, a family heirloom, and the other, the Bible used at the swearing in of George Washington as our nation's first President. After the swearing in, Carter and his wife were the first President and First Lady to walk from the U.S. Capitol to the White House. His inauguration was also the first time that the departing President, Gerald Ford, departed by helicopter from the Capitol. His inauguration was also the first time that special provisions were made to accommodate the handicapped in order to be able to view the inauguration parade. Carter was one of the most brilliant individuals to be elected to the office of President. Unfortunately, he had difficulties with Congress given both that he lacked national experience and the fact that even within in his own Democratic party he faced significant opposition from a faction led by Senator Edward Kennedy. He also had the unfortunate luck of being President when OPEC was created and the Arab oil-producing nations decided to impose an embargo so as to drive up the prices of oil. He also had the unforuntely luck of being President after the Shah of Iran had been driven out and Iran had taken American hostages for allowing the former Shah to receive medical treatment in the U.S. Despite these setbacks, two of the most important accomplishments of his administration was the negotiation of the Middle-East Peace Agreement between Egypt and Israel and the investment in smart weapons and other advanced technologies for the military that were later to be invaluable to help bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union and in the winning of the Gulf War. After his presidency, Carter went on to become involved in world peace and humanitarian efforts. He also became a successful writer of multiple books and received the Nobel Peace Prize. Looking back, one of the most farsighted initiatives taken during his presidency was his support of conservation and alternative energy initiatives. Unforunately, most of these initiatives were abandoned by President Reagan when he took office as the nation returned to a mentality of cheap oil.

GERALD FORD, 39TH PRESIDENT - Gerald was sworn in as President on August 9, 1974 in a ceremony at the White House after the resignation of Richard Nixon. He had previously been appointed Vice President after the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew. As such, Ford was the only person to assume the office of President who had not been elected to that post or to the position of Vice President. He also was the first Vice President to assume the office of President under the provisions of the 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which specifies that upon the resignation of a President, the Vice President shall become President. One of Ford's first actions as President was to pardon former President Richard Nixon. He did this to end what he described as our long national nightmare dealing with the Watergate scandal and to allow him, s President, to focus on matters other than Watergate. Today, most people understand that Ford was acting in the national interests, but at the time there was concern about a potential behind the scenes pre-arranged deal for him to pardon Nixon in return for his becoming President. As such, this one action probably cost Ford the election when he later ran against Jimmy Carter for a second term as President. Ford was also responsible for ordering the withdrawal of all American troops from Vietnam, thus ending our involvement in the Vietnam War. Even though never elected to the office, Ford stands out as one of our most honorable, decent and respected Presidents.

RICHARD NIXON, 38TH PRESIDENT - Richard Nixon had previously served as Vice President under President Eisenhower. Afterwards, he ran for President but was defeated by John F. Kennedy. He finally was elected and sworn in as the nation's 38th President on January 20, 1969. His inauguration was unusual in that only individuals with special invitations were admitted to the Capitol grounds for the inauguration ceremony. Also, two Bibles were utilized, both family heirlooms. As President, Nixon's two biggest achievements were his trip to China to open up relations with China and his Executive Order creating the United States Environmental Protection Agency. He was less successful in his campaign promise to get us out of the Vietnam War, with some people believing that he purposely delayed the withdrawal of our troops so as to hence his status as a war-time President and thus chances of being re-elected. After being elected to a second term, however, he became embroiled in the Watergate scandal and, because of the threat of his impeachment and prosecution by the Watergate Special Prosecutor, he was forced to resign, becoming the only President to resign from office. While he was pardoned by his succesor, President Gerald Ford, a number of his top White House staff were convicted and went to jail for actions related to the Watergate scandal.

LYNDON JOHNSON, 36TH PRESIDENT - Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as President aboard Air Force One after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. This was the first time that the oath of office was administer by a woman, Sarah T. Hughes, U.S. District Court Judge for the Northern District of Texas. Upon becoming President, Johnson pushed through the Civil Rights Act and other initiatives previously undertaken by President Kennedy. Johnson used his overwhelming victory in his re-election to a second term as President to gather support for his "Great Society" social programs. He was frustrated, however, when despite his efforts for civil rights, the nation's cities erupted into inner city riots, looting and burning. Also, the college campuses erupted into anti-war protests as Johnson escalated the war in Vietnam with the bombing of North Vietnam and the commitment of increasing numbers of troops. In retrospect, one can argue that Johnson should be considered to be one of our greatest presidents because of his success in pushing through historic civil rights and social programs. When Johnson stepped down as President, however, he did so as a very frustrated and disappointed individual because of both the civil unrest throughout the country and the failure of his policies with respect to the escalation of the war in Vietnam.
JOHN F. KENNEDY, 35TH PRESIDENT - Sworn in as the 35th President on January 20, 1961, Kennedy was the first Catholic-American to be elected President. His was the first inauguration to be broadcast on color television. His was also the first inauguration to have a poet read a poem, and was the coldest of all inaugurations, with army flame throwers having to be used to clear the route of the inaugural parade. Along with his wife, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, he brought a youthfulness, optimism and sophistication to the presidency and the White House. He inherited plans for the invasion of Cuba which resulted in the failed Bay of Pigs incident. Accepting full responsibility for the failure, the public excused the incident. During the subsequent Cuban Missle crisis, President Kennedy is credited with showing more restraint and judgment than his aides who recommended a military attack on Cuba, and thus averting a nuclear war. Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union have documents come to light revealing how close we were to experiencing a nuclear war. Perhaps his greatest accomplishment, however, were his proposed social reforms, including the introduction of the Civil Rights Act. Unfortunately, he was assassinated in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald before his legislative agenda could be enacted, with the Civil Rights Act and bills passed only later after his death. Despite the short term of his presidency due to him being assassinated, in public opinion polls he is often ranked as our greatest President. One of his best known accomplishments was the creation of the Peace Corps. In the 2008 presidential election, his daughter, Caroline Kennedy, was one of the leading supporters of the presidency of Barack Obama. If you are visiting Washington, D.C., be sure the visit the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts which is named in his honor, and which is the jewel of cultural activities for the nation's capitol.
DWIGHT EISENHOWER, 34TH PRESIDENT - Dwight Eisenhower served as the Allied Supreme Commander in Europe during World War II and was responsible for overseeing the D-Day Invasion and the defeat of Germany. As a war hero, both political parties sought Eisenhower to run for President as the candidate for their party. Choosing to run as a Republican, Eisenhower was overwhelmingly elected and sworn in as the 34th President on January 20, 1953. Eisenhower's two greatest accomplishments as President were the construction of the interstate highway system and his skillful handling of the Cold War with the Soviet Union.
HARRY TRUMAN, 33RD PRESIDENT - Harry Truman was sworn in as the 33rd President on April 12, 1945 after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He subsequently was elected President in his own right and sworn in on January 20, 1949. His was the first inauguration to be broadcast on television. Truman's greatest accomplishments as President were his successful conclusion of World War II and the creation of the United Nations. He was re-elected as President, but saw his popularity drop with the U.S. involvement in the Korean War and his firing of the popular General MacArthur. Over time, however, both historians and the public have increased their view of Truman, ranking him as one of our near-great Presidents.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, 32ND PRESIDENT - Franklin Roosevelt was the only President to be elected that was disabled and used a wheelchair. For public appearances, however, he used braces to allow him to stand and walk with assistance for very short distances. He also was the only President to be elected to four terms as President. For his first term, he was sworn into office on March 4, 1933. For his second term, he was inaugurated on January 30, 1937, being the first President to be elected after passage of the 20th amendment to the U.S. Constitution which changed the inaugural date to January 20th. He was re-elected and sworn in for a third term on January 20, 1941 and was re-elected and sworn in for a fourth term on January 20, 1945. He was the last and only president to serve more than two terms since the 22nd Amendment ratified in 1951 henceforth restricted Presidents to serving only two terms. Along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, he is ranked among historians as among our three greatest Presidents for successfully guiding the country through both the Great Depression and World War II. Certainly, he left as great of a mark on the country as any other President. Meanwhile, his wife, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, is often as the greatest woman in America's history, helping to champion many of the social causes that President Roosevelt came to support. After his death, President Truman appointed her as the first U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. In this role, lhe led the fight for the adoption of the International Declaration of Human Rights. If you are visiting Washington, D.C., be sure to visit the FDR Memorial next to the tidal basin. It is one of Washington's newest but most spectacular memorials/monuments.
HERBERT HOOVER, 31ST PRESIDENT - Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as President on March 4, 1929. His was the first inauguration to be recorded by a talking newsreel. Soon after becoming President, the country experienced a collapse of the stock market and entered into the Great Depression. For this reason, he is often associated with the Great Depression. In fact, however, as Secretary of Commerce under Calvin Coolidge, Hoover had warned of the financial market excesses that led to the Stock Market Collapse and the Great Depression. He also was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, humanitarian in our nation's history. Having used his mining engineering education to make himself a multi-millionaire at a young age, during World War I he spearheaded and personally financed much of the Belgium relief effort for civilians displaced by the war. He was also an organizational genius so that, even after his presidency, future presidents sought him out for his advice and help. Unfortunately, he was not a great public communicator with the result that with the beginning of the Great Depression he was unable to provide the public, morale leadership that the nation's needed at the time.
CALVIN COOLIDGE, 30TH PRESIDENT - Calvin Coolidge served as the Vice President under President Harding, and thus assumed the office of President upon the death of Harding. Upon hearing of the death of Harding on March 3, 1923, Coolidge was administered the oath of office as President by his father, who was a justice of the peace. He was elected to a second term as President. At his inauguration for his second term on March 4, 1925, he was administered the oath of office by ex-president and then Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, William Howard Taft. Coolidge's inauguration was the first presidential inauguration to be broadcast nationwide on radio. Known as "Silent Cal" for his quiet manner, Coolidge was extremely popular and was the type of person that the public wanted as its president at the time. Unfortunately, he did not see the economic problems that were developing in the country at the time with the result that his laissez-faire attitude towards the regulation of the economy and financial markets helped lead to the Great Depression.
WARREN HARDING, 29TH PRESIDENT - Warren Harding was sworn in as our nation's 29th President on March 4, 1921. He was the first President to ride to and from his inauguration in an automobile. His was also the first inauguration for which loudspeakers were used, as well as the first inauguration for which a steel inaugural stand was utilized (and was used in future presidential inaugurations until 1981). He died in office while on a trip to San Francisco. While he was popular while in office, soon after his death revelations about the Teapot Dome and other scandals during his presidency soon surfaced. It also was published that he had fathered an illegitimate child and had several affairs with other women. Because of these scandals and the general lack of presidential leadership during his time in office, he is often ranked as the worst president in U.S. history.
WOODROW WILSON, 28TH PRESIDENT - Woodrow Wilson was sworn in as the 28th U.S. President on March 4, 1913. He went on to serve two terms as President, including serving as President during World War I. Despite being a Democrat and thus from the opposite party as Theodore Roosevelt, he carried on the progressive policies and agenda of Theodore Roosevelt. At the end of World War I, he also was the principal individual that led the fight for the creation of the League of Nations, but was unable to convince the U.S. Senate to approve the U.S. joining the League. While on a train trip across the country to convince the public to support legislation to approve the U.S. joining the League of Nations, he suffered a stroke which he never fully recovered from. While incapacited from the stroke, his second wife, Edith Wilson, secretly handled many of the duties of President for her husband. Despite his failure to win support for the U.S. joining the League of Nations, he is often nevertheless credited with being one of our near-great presidents for his efforts toward world peace. The 19th amendment giving women the right to vote was also passed during his presidency. The greatest criticism of his presidency was his support of racial segregation.
WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, 27TH PRESIDENT - Sworn in as President on March 4, 1904, William Howard Taft was the first President to ride to his inauguration parade with his wife. His was the first inauguration parade to also include an automobile, and that evening the U.S. Capitol dome was lighted for the first time (with a searchlight). Taft was the heaviest of all U.S. Presidents, requiring a special bathtub to be installed in the White House to accommodate him. After serving as President, Taft became the only U.S. President to later go on and serve as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT, 26TH PRESIDENT - As Vice President under President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt assumed the office of the President upon the death of McKinley. He went on to be elected to a second term, and becoming one of our greatest presidents. He is perhaps best known for his nickname of "Teddy," his role as a "Rough Rider" in Cuba during the Spanish-American war, his construction of the Panama Canal, and his slogan "Speak softly, but carry a big stick." He supported progressive issues, environmental conservation, and the expansion of U.S. influence throughout the World. For those visiting Washington, D.C., be sure to visit Roosevelt Island which can be accessed via the Virginia side of the Potomac River, which includes a monument in its center to Theodore Roosevelt.
WILLIAM McKINLEY, 25TH PRESIDENT - William McKinley was sworn in as President on March 4, 1897. His was the first inauguration to be filmed by a movie camera. Ironically, his was also the first inauguration where a glass-enclosed reviewing stand was constructed in front of the White House to provide greater security for the newly-elected President. This enhanced presidential security did not protect him as later in his presidency he became the third U.S. President to be assassinated.
GROVER CLEVELAND, 24TH PRESIDENT - Having previously served one term as President and then retiring, Grover Cleveland decided to again run for President after the one-term presidency of Benjamin Harrison. After successfully being elected, he was sworn in on March 4, 1893, becoming the only President to serve twice in this office.
BENJAMIN HARRISON, 23RD PRESIDENT - The grandson of President William Henry Haarrison, Benjamin Harrison was sworn in as President on March 4, 1889.
GROVER CLEVELAND, 22ND PRESIDENT - Grover Cleveland is the only individual to serve as President twice, with an intervening period in between where he was not in office. For his first time as President, he was sworn in on March 4, 1885.
CHESTER ARTHUR, 21ST PRESIDENT - Chester Arthur served as Vice President under President James Garfield. As a result, he became President upon the assassination of President Garfield. His swearing in was the first time that two ex-presidents were in attendance (i.e. Ulysses S. Grant and Rutherford B. Hayes).
JAMES GARFIELD, 20TH PRESIDENT - James Garfield was the second U.S. President to be assassinated while in office. He took office on March 4, 1881. He was the first President whose mother attended his inauguration, and was the first President to view the inaugural parade from a stand in front of the White House.

Thursday, December 25, 2008

RUTHERFORD B. HAYES, 19TH PRESIDENT - After being elected President, Hayes took the oath of office twice, once on March 3, 1877 in a private ceremony in the White House, and again on March 5, 1877 in a public ceremony. The reason for the initial private ceremony of taking the oath of office was begun March 3, 1877, the required date for assuming the presidency, was a Sunday - and it was not deemed prior to have a public inauguration ceremony on the sabbath.
ULYSSES S. GRANT, 18TH PRESIDENT - Grant was sworn in as President on March 4, 1869. Having served as head of the Union armies that defeated the South during the Civil War, at the time he was elected President he was the most popular man in American -- including being more popular than the assassinated President Abraham Lincoln.
ANDREW JOHNSON, 17TH PRESIDENT - Andrew Johnson was the first Vice President to assume the office of President upon the assassination of the sitting President (Abraham Lincoln). He took office on April 15, 1865.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 16TH PRESIDENT - Because of threats against his life, Lincoln secretly slipped into Washington, D.C. prior to his inauguration. He then was sworn into office on March 4, 1861 in a public ceremony at the U.S. Capitol. Four years later, after being re-elected, his inauguration parade following the swearing-in ceremony was the first to include African-Americans.
JAMES BUCHANAN, 15TH PRESIDENT - James Buchanan took office on March 4, 1857. His was the first inaugural to be photographed.
FRANKLIN PIERCE, 14TH PRESIDENT - Franklin Pierce took the oath of office as President on March 4, 1853. Tragically, on his way by train to his inauguration, his son was killed when the train derailed. As a result of grieving over this loss, his wife was not able to continue and Pierce had to go alone to Washington, D.C. There, he stood up in his carriage to and from the U.S. Capitol to his inauguration. He was the first President to affirm the required presidential oath, rather than being sworn in. He also was the first President to not refer to any notes in delivering his inaugural address.
MILLARD FILLMORE, 13TH PRESIDENT - Millard Fillmore took the oath of office of the President on July 10, 1850 upon the death of President Zachary Taylor. Previously, he had been elected and served as Zachary Taylor's Vice President.
ZACHARY TAYLOR, 12TH PRESIDENT - Zachary Taylor took office as the 12th U.S. President on March 5, 1849. Previously he had no political experience and had never even voted in an election, with his own election to the presidency being based upon his having been a hero in the Mexican War. His presidency was cute short after being stricken with acute indigestion after attending a July 4th celebration at the Washington Monument in 1850, only a little over a year after he took office, and died several days later.
JAMES POLK, 11TH PRESIDENT - James Polk was sworn in as the 11th President on March 4, 1845. His was the first inauguration to be reported by telegraph and to be illustrated in a newspaper (The Illustrated London News). Historians have increasingly viewed Polk as a near-great or great President based upon the accomplishments of his presidency, particularly as it related to the territorial expansion of the United States to the Pacific Ocean, leading the United States successfully through the Mexican War, and settling the Oregon question with Great Britain.
JOHN TYLER, 10TH PRESIDENT - John Tyler was sworn in as President on April 6, 1841. He was the first Vice President to assume the office of President upon the death of a sitting President (William Henry Harrison). After his presidency, when the Civil War broke out, Tyler was elected to the Confederate Congress, but died shortly therafter.
WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, 9TH PRESIDENT - William Henry Harrison was sworn in as the 9th U.S. President on March 4, 1841. His campaign slogan - "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" - referred to his defeat of the Native Americans under the leadership of Tecumseh and his brother The Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe, and was the first presidential campaign to use a campaign slogan. He was the first President-elect to arrive in Washington, D.C. for his inauguration by train, while his was the longest of all inaugural speeches (10,000 words). His inaugural address was unusual in that he began it before taking the oath of office, then took the oath of office, and then resumed his speech. His presidency was the shortest of all U.S. Presidents, dying not long after his inauguration from pneumonia that he caught from giving such a long inauguration speech in the bitter cold.
MARTIN VAN BUREN, 8TH PRESIDENT - Martn Van Buren sworn in as President on March 4, 1837. He had previously served as the Vice President for Andrew Jackson and as the chief strategist for the Democratic Party. His inauguration was the first time that an outgoing President (Jackson) and an incoming President (Van Buren) rode together in a carriage to the inaugural ceremony. Afterwards, his inaugural parade was the first to include floats and that evening his was the first presidency to hold two inaugural balls.
ANDREW JACKSON, 7TH PRESIDENT - Andrew Jackson became our seventh President on March 4, 1829. He was the first President to take the oath of office on the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol. Later, the White House was opened to the public for an inaugural celebration that included a huge wheel of cheese, and with the massive crowd destroying many of the furnishings of the White House.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, 6TH PRESIDENT - John Quincy Adams was sworn in as our sixth President on March 4, 1825. He was the first President to be inaugurated wearing long trousers. He was also the first President to be the son of a previous President, with his father John Adams having served as our nation's first Vice President and second President. He was also the first President to be photographed.